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ALCOHOL CLIN EXP RES. 2009 SEPTEMBER; 33(9): 1513-1523.

Provides a mini-review of known/studied/documented possible mechanisms of active and bioavailability of constituents of alcohol.

COMPILES INFORMATION ON WHAT WE KNOW AND DON'T KNOW ABOUT WINES BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS. ALTHOUGH NOT A COCHRANE REVIEW, PROVIDES SUMMARY INFORMATION AND DELINEATES WHETHER HUMAN OR ANIMAL MODEL.

Provides a basis for understanding protection afforded against all cause mortality.

Bioactive Compounds: Flavonols (myricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, etc.)
Phenolic Acids (gallic, caftaric, caffeic)
Stilbenes (Resveratrol)

Resveratrol: Human studies-delays chronic disease, neuroprotetive, inhibits cancer cell proliferation.
Mouse Models: expands life span probably through sirtuin an enzyme in metabolic pathways.

Resveratrol -linked to Sirtuin, but not clear mechanism; it may activate sirt1 and
decrease oxidative stress.

1. has dose dependent effects: high levels mediate cell death, low levels are protective.
2. thought to act as an antioxidant by increasing NO activity. THERE ARE NO CLINICAL TRIALS TO DATE THAT CONFIRM THIS.
3. thought to act as an anti-inflammatory by suppressing interleukins
4. thought to increase insulin sensitivity (Mouse Model)
5. neuroprotective by crossing the blood/brain barrier decreasing oxidative stress and increasing NO release (Rat Model)
6. limits myocardial injury (Rat Model)

White wine lacks stilbenes potency but phenolic acids limit reperfusion injury (Rats)

7. limits endothelial damage (Rat Model) by enhancing eNOS
8. limits collagen deposition and cardiac fibroblast deposition (Rat cell culture)
9. removes free radicals from circulation (human cell culture)
10. prevents platelet aggregation (in vitro)

Bioavailability:

1. Red wine is the only source in the human diet
2. We are incapable of consuming enough red wine to achieve levels found to be helpful to fish or mice.
3. 100% of quercetin and resveratrol are conjugated after oral ingestion.
4. 0% of anthocyains are conjugated (escape intestinal metabolism?)
5. conjugation is known to inhibit quercetin's biological effects.
6. THERE IS NO DATA ON HOW MUCH CONJUGATED RESVERATROL IS BIOACTIVE.

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